Particulate    matter    (PM)    is    a    serious    threat    to    human    health.    Short-term    exposure    to    high    levels    of    this pollutant   is   just   as   dangerous   as   long-term   exposure   to   high   or   low   levels.      There   are   no   safe   levels   of   exposure because PM exposure health effects are cumulative.   How so? PM   health      risks      associated      with      dune      dust      are      primarily      from      inhaling      airborne   particles   that   are   10 micrometers   or   smaller.      These   very   small   particles   are   trapped   in   the   lung.      Particles   that   are   not   dissolved   are absorbed   into   the   lining   of   the   lung.      This   causes   scar   tissue   that   over   time   can   accumulate   enough   to   impair lung   function.      The      smallest      particles      can      pass      through      the      lungs      into      the      blood      stream,   affecting      organs.     Exposure   to   PM   pollution   has   been   shown   to   increase   incidents   of   lung   impairment,   heart   disease   and   cancer   in exposed   populations,   and   to   aggravate   existing   lung   health   problems.      Learn      more      about      PM      related      health     issues  from  the information sources listed in the table below.  
TITLE DESCRIPTION SOURCE
Subject: Health impacts related to elevated levels of particulate matter (PM) in the Nipomo/Oceano Dunes area.
San Luis Obispo County Health Commission
Excerpts from website regarding particulate matter and Health.
Center for Disease Control
American Lung Association web page on particle pollution.  Includes a video explaining the way particles damage lungs.
American Lung Association
Fine particles of pollution that linger in the air can increase the risk of sudden cardiac arrest.
HealthDay News
Time magazine article on Dr. Hazrije Mustafic study findings showing high levels of particulates elevates risk of heart attack and stroke.
NBC News
The ambient air quality standards (AAQS) for particulate matter (PM) that can be present in outdoor air without threatening public health.
California Air Resources Board
What Is Particle Pollution?  Who Is at Risk? What Can Particles Do to Your Health? Short-Term Exposure Can Be Deadly? Year-Round Exposure Can Kill and May Cause Cancer. EPA Concludes Fine Particle Pollution Poses Serious Health Threats. Where Does Particle Pollution Come From? Are Some Particles More Dangerous than Others?
American Lung Association
Summary of PM health effects and explanation of the EPA Air Quality Index (AQI)
United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
Study report showing both short- and long-term exposures to fine particulate matter (≤ 2.5 μm; PM2.5) are associated with mortality.
Environmental Health Perspectives
Reports on a study that is the first large epidemiological analysis to examine the possible impact of PM2.5 exposure on the development of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and end- stage renal  disease (ESRD).
Journal of the American Society of Nephrology (JASN)
Bonnie Holmes-Gen Senior Director, Air Quality and Climate Change American Lung Association
Subject: Oceano Dunes: Lung Health Impacts of Particle Pollution

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INFORMATION SOURCES - PM P0LLUTION HEALTH IMPACTS